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Below I have listed a few of the more items in my pack with short explanations.

GoLite Pinnacle pack: 2 lbs, simple and light, yet durable and Canada Goose Buy Banff Parka Australia adequately featured.

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Whisperlite International stove: can burn gasoline, which I can find regularly and easily in rural Alaskan villages; in comparison, fuel canisters are non existent in these parts.

Alpacka packraft: a different, but completely critical, item in Alaskan used to float or ferry across rivers, and paddle across saltwater bays; accompanied with a carbon fiber Sawyer paddle that's ultralight yet powerful. My PFD is a nylon vest that uses three 2L Platypus bottles for floatation.

Alcohol stove: homemade from a 3 oz cat food can (try Fancy Feast); never breaks, never clogs, and never fails.

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Mountain Laurel Designs SoloMid: 13 oz, pyramid shaped tarp, excellent protection for its weight, has a modular style bug net that I will add in the summer.

GoLite Hooded Cady jacket: very warm for its weight; sewed on a coyote fur ruff to help block wind

Vapor barrier liner clothing: non breathable fabric that prevents perspiration from entering insulation (parkas, pants, sleeping bag), where it will dampen the insulation, resulting in a loss of loft.

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La Sportiva Fireblade running shoes: the best off trail shoe that I've found it's low to the ground, has a sticky outsole, has a very durable upper, and it breathes really well. The Fireblades pair well with DeFeet EcoTrekker merino wool socks during the Spring and Fall.

ULA EPIC pack: its unique "sandwich" design accommodates a packraft really well, and it's very light for its load carrying capacity.

Over the next 200 days I will experience a wide range of season influenced conditions, and I will rotate gear in and out accordingly, via "maildrops" sent through the postal service. At the start, when I am 30 miles north of the Arctic Circle in mid March, I will have multiple insulating layers, a gasoline fueled stove with which I can melt snow for water, and a pyramid shaped shelter that is capable of shedding snow and deflecting strong winds. When I reach the Parks Highway at the end of April, I will have a convenient opportunity to swap things out. At this point I will receive my three season raingear, alcohol fueled stove (made out of a 3 oz cat food can), and a 1 person, 4.5 pound inflatable boat known as a packraft that I use to float rivers and paddle across fjords. A less major transition will occur in the fall.

"Nordic " ski setup: 200 cm long metal edged waxable skis, leather boots (with a Forty Below 3 mm thick neoprene overboot), 3 pin telemark bindings, and carbon fiber poles.

The contents of my pack are almost entirely need based. During this trip, my legitimate needs will include staying hydrated and nourished, keeping my body temperature regulated, and ing efficiently and safely over the land snow covered tundra, glacier fed rivers, and dense alder forests. I can think of only one item, my camera, which can be classified as a "want." This Spartan approach to packing is easily explained: carrying more stuff means more work, and work, well, it's generally not very fun.

Today adventurer begins an ambitious, seven month that will take him 4,720 miles across Alaska and the Yukon by skis, foot, and raft.

The weight of an item is a major consideration in whether it makes the final cut, for there is an indisputable correlation between pack weight and the quality of one's experience. But it's not the only factor I consider particularly on a trip like this, which will be hard on gear and has relatively few opportunities to replace things. Durability and versatility are also of great value. My RidgeRest Deluxe Solar sleeping pad is a case in point. It's warmer for its weight than any inflatable pad, it won't puncture, and, come springtime, I can cut it in half to make a suitable three season pad.

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IntroductionHistoryRace to the TopSquare RockBeaver LodgeWaterfowl on Frog LakeLake HabitatI Spy in the StreamInside Dingle TowerResourcesIntroductionWelcome to your Sir Sandford Fleming Park BioKit Circuit. Use the activities in this circuit, Cheap Women Canada Goose Constable Parka Black Australia along with the HRM Urban BioKit, to explore the natural treasures and unique places in this park utilizing your keen powers of observation. In addition to the material required for the BioKit, you will need a clear plastic jar.

Race to the TopBehind the Adventure Earth Centre

A Tree's Life Story1) Each ring = one year

GPS: N 44 37.720' W 63 35.821'

Estimate the tree's age at the time it was cut down.

On the path you'll see a large tree stump. On the top of this trunk you'll find the tree's ring lines, as pictured here. Use your magnifying glass to count the rings.

During winter trees in Canada usually enter in a dormant phase, and so they do not grow during this period.

Life for trees is a constant battle for sunlight, water, nutrients and pollination. You can tell the age of a tree and the history of its life by counting the tree's rings.

In what stage of its life (young or old) did it have good growing conditions?

2) Large gap between rings = good growing conditions

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3) Narrow distance = poor growing conditions

Sir Sandford Fleming Park BioKit Circuit The BioKits are nature observation guides designed primarily to be brought along during your outdoor excursions. The content of the printable version of the Sir Sandford Fleming Park BioKit Circuit differs from the content here because some changes and deletions were necessary in order to better suit the HTML format.

The park features a great variety of trees and animals. During your walk you will have the chance to go by a small lake called Frog Lake, which is home to many ducks, frogs, turtles and aquatic plant species.

HistorySir Sandford Fleming Park is a large urban park located across from the Halifax Peninsula, from which it is separated by the Northwest Arm inlet. In 1908, this property was donated to the City of Halifax by Sir Sandford Fleming for public use. During his time as Chief Engineer of the Northern Railway of Canada, Sir Fleming proposed the concept of worldwide standard time zones, and was credited as its inventor. This achievement, among others, earned him recognition as one of Canada's greatest minds of the 19th century. The park was originally his summer retreat, which he established after completion of the Intercolonial Railway.

Sit with your back against Square Rock, close your eyes, and listen closely to the sounds around you for five minutes.

A great way to experience the wild is to listen. The chirping of frogs, buzzing of insects and singing of birds are all sounds you can hear. Animals emit sounds for many reasons, including to attract mates, mark territory, and even to signal a change in weather!

Square RockGPS: N 44 37.689' W 63 36.027'

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Look at the fallen trees around the stump: can you match one of the fallen trees to this stump?

Just for fun!Like people all trees are different. Old trees especially tell stories about the past, big storms, droughts and fires. Slowly walk through the surrounding forest and look for faces or interesting shapes in trees. Pick one face to show to a friend or someone in your family. Then together decide if any faces you can see look happy, sad or any other emotion.

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Tickets for the Cuvee En Route portion of the weekend are also available separately, at a cost of $30 per person.

Chateau St. Jean 2009 Cabernet Sauvignon ($19.95, code 38034). A very good California varietal made by one of Sonoma's most respected estates (pronounce it "jean" like the pants). There's excellent depth and sophistication to the wine, offering rich black currant fruit, wild strawberries and herbaceous nuances such as thyme and savoury.

Henry of Pelham 2009 Reserve Off Dry Riesling ($15.95, code 557165). A slightly more robust style of Riesling, this one has marvellous acid/ fruit interplay that makes it feel very juicy in the mouth. Look for tangy citrus and fresh and dried peach characteristics, with a feeling of mineral/ chalk in the finish.

A little splurge to warm up a cold winter night

Cuvee is coming. This year's celebration of the best in Ontario wine (and food) will be the 24th, and underscores how much the domestic wine scene has grown and improved in that time.

Apart from the Gala itself, that ticket also acts as your passport for the entire weekend for Cuvee En Route. On March 3 and 4, more than 40 Niagara wineries and seven restaurants are offering special tastings and menus. Guests drop by their preferred wineries at their own pace.

The format hasn't really changed, though. There's the kickoff black tie optional Gala on Friday, March 2, at the Fallsview Casino Resort in Niagara Falls. That event features a record number 63 Ontario wineries pouring samples of their best stuff, accompanied by a bevy of celebrated chefs offering gourmet food creations.

Ruffino 2008 Santedame Chianti Classico ($19.95, code 523076). Try this great single vineyard Chianti from one of Italy's premier producers. Always impeccable stuff. It's Sangiovese based, of course, and has the traditional dry mineral/ boney undertone that identifies Discount Men Canada Goose Chateau Parka Black Australia Chianti. But it's also in the modern style of the region, with firm, forward fruit and flavours of cherry, black raspberry and cedar.

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Rosewood 2009 Natalie's Sussreserve Riesling ($14.95, code 258806). The technique, originated in Germany, is interesting for this offering out of Beamsville. A portion of the pressed juice is set aside and cold stabilized so it retains all its natural sweetness and character. The rest is then fermented, and a predetermined shot of the "sweet reserve" added back. The result is a delicate, fragrant, floral Riesling with bright fresh peach, grape and passion fruit flavours.

Let's sweeten up a cold January weekend by starting today's column on the arrival of new Vintages products with a look at a dessert wine and a couple of fruity, delicious off dry domestic Rieslings.

Penfolds 2009 Bin 138 Grenache/ Shiraz/ Mourvedre ($34.95, code 468637). My splurge choice for the release, from Australia. One of the better GSM blends you'll find anywhere, very reasonably priced for the quality. It's medium bodied, and comes across with ripe blueberry flavours, black cherries, elderberries and a splash of peppery spice.

Perrin Fils 2009 Muscat de Beaumes de Venise ($16.95 for 375 mL, code 4713). A classic sweet wine from one of the great Rhone wine producing houses. Beaumes de Venise is a growing area near Avignon, and the Muscat wine they make there is wonderful. This one has beautiful fresh apricot, marmalade, honey, tangerine and tarte tatin flavours about it.

Tickets to the Cuvee Gala cost $200 per person with a portion coming back as a tax deduction (Cuvee is a fundraiser for the Niagara Community Foundation). If you've got a group, a special package of 10 tickets is $1,750.

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Catherine Clarke: Well, folks take it as an anti oxidant, similar to the way they might take Vitamin C or Vitamin E.

Robyn Williams: So, if you're suggesting that without Q you live 60% longer, you know that's a huge amount, could it be that with Q you have a similarly dramatic effect on the other direction?

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Robyn Williams: Except we are talking about worms still, aren't we? What was the reaction when you published your material, were the manufacturers very cross?

Robyn Williams: So this brings in your work on the C elegans, this Discount Men Canada Goose Manitoba Jacket Graphite Australia wonderful little worm the nematode worm, which has been used for so many experiments and you found what?

Catherine Clarke: Right, there are studies that suggest that as people age and as animals age that levels of this, it's a lipid, fall. And I think one of the rationales may be that by taking it as a supplement you could keep levels at a higher amount.

Kerry Hull: Dr Dunlap has found that the bacteria which live in the outer mucous lining of corals exposed to the damaging ultra violet sunlight dramatically increase levels of this anti aging enzyme. In the laboratory, when bombarded with UV radiation the bacteria over compensate by recycling coenzyme Q at a faster rate than needed to resist damage.

Catherine Clarke: Well, you know we expect the results of that Parkinson's Disease trial to come out probably within this year. The Huntington's Disease trial: I think what the result will indicate is that there is no significant effect of taking the coenzyme Q, but again, I think those still need to be published.

Kerry Hull, ABC News, Townsville.

Walt Dunlap: As we get older we become more and more deficient in this recycling of coenzyme Q.

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Robyn Williams: Do you recommend to your friends that they take it?

Catherine Clarke: No, in fact I think people say they have to take it for a month or so or even longer and that it's a gradual effect it; doesn't kick in right away.

Robyn Williams: And you found?

Catherine Clarke: No. I don't.

Robyn Williams: But people don't get a sort of immediate reaction over days or weeks, they don't feel better necessarily, do they?

Robyn Williams: Fascinating science done by the man who brought us the coral sunscreen a while ago, Walt Dunlap. But what about that coenzyme Q, taken by lots of people to keep them young. Does it work? Well, according to new research at UCLA, that's the University of California, Los Angeles, it sometimes has the opposite effect to the one you want. Professor Catherine Clarke.

Robyn Williams: And they really do believe in it?

Catherine Clarke: Yeah, there are quite a few folks that take it and think it provides some benefit and in fact there are clinical trials underway currently testing whether it has any efficacy in treating a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's Disease and Huntington's disease, and for the most part we simply must wait to see what the efficacy is.

Catherine Clarke: Well, what we found was that in feeding these worms a diet devoid of coenzyme Q they actually had a 60% extension of lifespan. So it really, you know, it was really a surprise to folks I think, that take the supplement because the preconceived notion is that if you took this you would perhaps extend life. So in our studies the worms are eating the bacteria called E. coli (Escherichia coli), and that's their normal laboratory diet. And we simply engineered an E. coli strain that was Q less, so it was devoid of coenzyme Q, and then provided the worms with either the Q less diet or the Q replete diet and that's where we saw a 60% extension of lifespan in the worms fed the Q less diet.

Robyn Williams: I'm sure it is. And the results that you mentioned for the clinical trials, when will they start to be public?

Catherine Clarke: Well, we were studying the biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme Q or ubiquinone, and there was a mutation in a worm, the C elegans, that prevented it's synthesis and interestingly enough this mutant had been described initially as being very slow, very sluggish and having a longer life span. And our work in fact showed that the mutation impaired the synthesis of coenzyme Q in the worm and so one of the next questions we wanted to address was whether a dietary source of coenzyme Q also would have an impact on lifespan of the worm, and specifically looking at normal worms that are able to synthesis coenzyme Q.

Robyn Williams: Do you take it yourself?

Robyn Williams: Of course, there'd be anti oxidants the rage at the moment and presumably people are taking them for some sort of long term benefit; anti aging and all that.

Robyn Williams: Did you see an item on ABC TV news a few days ago about extend your life span? Here's an extract.

Kerry Hull: Dr Dunlap says the bacteria has the ability to produce a potent weapon in the war against aging an antioxidant known as coenzyme Q. Antioxidants boost the body's resistance to free radicals, the toxic by product cells create as they burn energy.

Kerry Hull: Most people spend their life trying to slow the aging process but Dr Walt Dunlap from the Australian Institute of Marine Science believes he may have unlocked the secret to eternal youth in marine bacteria.

Catherine Clarke: No, I don't. I get asked that question quite a bit and in my mind I think there's just not enough known about its effects and how it's taken up and transported by different tissues, so I'm a bit on the fence about coenzyme Q as a supplement.

Catherine Clarke: Well, I think a certain knee jerk reaction was: Oh, my goodness me, maybe I should stop taking my coenzyme Q supplement, and there tended to be direct extrapolation from our findings in worms to what the implications were in humans. Fortunately, I haven't been directly accosted or anything but there's a variety of web sites where there's quite an active debate going on about the possible pros and cons that may result from taking coenzyme Q and I certainly think such a debate is healthy.

Catherine Clarke: That's a big question, so actually the analogy that we work with is that it could be similar to cholesterol. So one thing that is clear is that the worms do better during growth and development with Q in the diet. So in other words, going from an egg through their normal larval moults to a reproductive active adult they actually do better with the coenzyme Q replete diet than with the Q less diet, but when they're switched as an adult to the Q less diet that's when you see the extension in lifespan. And I think the analogy to cholesterol is that during growth and development dietary sources of this lipid are really important: you're making new membranes, you're laying down islets (of Langhans) during development and cholesterol has to be produced and it's very important that it's taken in. But once you're developed, right, and you're a fat a happy adult, then the problem is the opposite: perhaps that we get too successful, we eat too much and that's when perhaps having it at exceedingly high levels is detrimental. It's possible that the same could be true with coenzyme Q but there's not nearly as much known about the trafficking and uptake and even just basic questions of metabolism about coenzyme Q as there is known about cholesterol.

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In the last column, I discussed the positive benefits of bird feeders and noted that no evidence exists to show that birds become dependent on feeders. Growing and selling birdseed is big business with sales of seed and feeders exceeding two billion dollars per year. Over 50 million Americans are involved with some level of bird feeding and observation around their homes. Such broad interest has not always been so.

Anna Botsford Comstock, a professor at Cornell University, started the Nature Study program for children. Kids were encouraged to feed birds and make observations on them. The Nature Study program continued into the 20th century.

The venerable table feeder was in use by the end of the 19th century. Window feeding trays appeared in the early 1900's. Bird feeding was encouraged by the National Audubon Society's magazine, Bird Lore and by two books on attracting birds by Bradford Torrey and Njelte Blanchan. Suet was recommended as a most valuable food. We concur with this advice as fat is more calorie rich than carbohydrates or proteins. Birds store fat to fuel their migrations, their over night shivering and other activities.

We can start in 1854 with Henry David Thoreau. In his classic reflection Walden, he writes of tossing half a bushel of unripe corn just outside his cabin and watching the various animals that were attracted to the corn, including Blue Jays and Black capped Chickadees.

House Sparrows sometime dominated bird feeders. Many people found this introduced species undesirable. Clever inventors produced feeders that allowed agile chickadees to get to the food but not relatively clumsy House Sparrows.

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Today, we'll look at the history of bird feeding in North America. This topic has long been a research interest of mine. This column benefits greatly from information in Feeding Wild Birds in America by Paul Baicich and others.

[Originally published on December 13, 2015]

We return to research done by Brittingham and Temple in Wisconsin. Having shown that bird feeding increases winter survival of Black capped Chickadees, these ornithologists set up an experiment to test for feeder dependence. In one area, chickadees had been given sunflower seeds continuously for several years. In the second area, no bird feeders were ever present.

Waldo Lee McAtee, a federal biologist, advocated using coconuts or tin cans with small holes as feeders. Such feeders minimize the loss of food. The holes could be made small to allow chickadees access but not larger birds that tended to outcompete chickadees at a feeding table.

If the population given sunflower seeds in previous years had a lower survivorship than the population with no bird feeders, one could claim that the birds in the first area had become dependent on the sunflower seeds. But there was no difference in survivorship for the two populations. The previously fed chickadees did as well in the following year feeding on natural food, as the unfed chickadees did that never experienced the bounty of bird feeders.

Margaret Brittingham and Stan Temple examined the impact of bird feeding on the winter survivorship of Black capped Chickadees in Wisconsin. They banded over 500 chickadees. Some populations were given access to unlimited sunflower seeds and some populations had to depend on natural food. Over the course of three winters, Brittingham and Temple found that winter survivorship of banded birds with access to supplemental food was 67% compared to 37% for birds without sunflower seed handouts. That's a pretty striking result.

Bird feeding is a two way street. We feed the birds to help them survive but also feed to lure the birds closer to us so that we may enjoy their beauty and behavior.

These results have been corroborated in similar studies done in Pennsylvania and Ontario.

We fast forward to 1898 when Florence Merriam Bailey began teaching bird classes to teachers in the District of Columbia. Bailey had recently graduated from Smith College and had been actively involved in battling the harvest of egrets. These birds were being slaughtered in large numbers because their breeding plumes had become fashionable in women's hats.

By 1910, more sophisticated bird feeders began to appear. Hans Berlepsch, a German, had begun to design bird feeders that minimized waste. His bird bell (a silo like contraption in which seeds fell onto a tray) was one of the most popular.

A number of readers have contacted me recently with a concern about bird feeding. Holiday travel means that our bird feeders may be depleted while we are away, depriving birds of our handouts. Readers are asking if we are doing harm to birds by providing and then removing food.

Commercial bird feeders became widely available in the 1920's and bird feeding continued to increase in popularity. To be sure, World War I and the Great Depression forced cutbacks in bird feeding but bird feeders were a common sight in 1940. We'll continue in the next column.

Tom Grubb and his students used this technique to examine the impact of bird feeding. They captured Downy Woodpeckers, White breasted Nuthatches, Carolina Chickadees and Tufted Titmice in the winter in Ohio. The researchers plucked one of the tail feathers of each bird. The birds quickly started replacing that missing feather.

This query requires us to answer two questions. First, do birds Buy Women Canada Goose Trillium Parka Pink Australia benefit from bird feeding? Second, do birds become dependent on bird feeders?

The answer to this first question is yes. One line of evidence comes from a technique called ptilochronology, a daunting word that refers to the rate of feather growth. Did you know that you can see daily growth bars on a feather? Each contour feather a bird produces has a record of how quickly it was formed.

At the same time, Elizabeth Davenport in Vermont fed the birds a diversity of seeds as well as cornbread. She kept careful records, documenting over 20 bird species at her feeders.

The researchers found that the greatest risk to the control (unfed) birds was in the coldest months with more than five days with subzero temperatures. Chickadees with supplemental food were also heavier than the control birds.

Similar studies have not been done for other North American species that frequent feeders but I expect that results would be similar. Depending on a single source of food is risky for any winter bird. Winter songbirds commonly range over areas of 10 to 25 acres. Much of this area is regularly patrolled and food is taken from a number of different parts of their winter area.

Half of the birds had access to bird feeders and the remainder were found in areas where only natural food was available. After a month or so, the birds were recaptured and their regrown tail feather was examined. The birds with access to supplemental food regrew their tail feathers at a faster rate; the daily growth bars were longer in these well fed birds. So, bird feeding increases the nutritional status of birds.

Bailey showed that nailing a few bones and suet to a tree attracted a diversity of birds. She recommended grains and table crumbs as well.

The first suet feeders appeared at about this time. Rather than simply tying or nailing suet to a tree, people began to make suet boxes from wood or metal. Some people mixed seeds in with the suet.

Birds therefore benefit from the food we provide for them. But is there a risk that birds become dependent on our handouts? The answer to that question is no to the best of our knowledge.

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PW: If you fall you are protected by the camming devices that I mentioned earlier. The sections between the camming devices can be quite a distance so 20/30ft falls are common if you fall off. You have to be careful at the beginning of the route because the climb is quite close to the ground so you have to make sure you don't fall off and land on your head. However by the end of the route (where I am in the picture) the ground has dropped away and there is exposure of 200ft below you, so if you fell from here you would fall into space.

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PW: The feature is so special because it is one of the longest roof cracks that is possible to climb in the world. It is also one of the hardest crack climbs in the world. The line of the route is amazing to look at and it looks so hard and steep that it would not be possible to climb.

PW: Yes, you climb the roof of the cave for about 37 meters. You climb the whole thing upside down with your legs inverted inside the crack above your head for the whole way. This section of the route can take about 15/20 minutes to climb.

PW: We trained specifically for two years so we would be able to do this climb. Tom built a small replica of the climb in the cellar of his house. We did continuous training laps on this to prepare ourselves. Over the top of this we did thousands of hours of offwidth specific abdominal, bicep, shoulder and leg conditioning. An average week we would train 5 days out of 7, though not all completely intensive.

A: You came all the way from the UK for this feature, why is it so special?

A: Did you have to train for a while to be ready for this climb? How?

PW: We climbed all the other hardest offwidths that America had to offer. Pakistan kommer med stet over for mange kritik fra resten af verden til sin politik, mens Kina indikerer

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A: Did you and Tom Randall both do the same climb of Century Crack? Had it been done in this style before? PW: and I both climbed Century Crack. It had never been free climbed before. By this I mean it had never been done from start to finish without weighting or resting on the rope and gear that you put in the rock. The best style it had been done before Tom and I, was by the whole of the route but in sections. The climbers who previously tried it didn't have the strength and fitness to complete it without resting lots.

While across the pond from home, the Brit duo hit every difficult offwidth crack they could find.

Whittaker and his climber partner Tom Randall trained for two years for the offwidth crack, meaning the gap was too wide for fist jamming techniques and too narrow for chimney techniques. Instead the climber must fill the space with a combination of body parts to make slow, grueling progress. "Tom built a small replica of the climb in the cellar of his house. We did continuous training laps on this to prepare ourselves," says Whittaker. "We also did thousands of hours of offwidth specific abdominal, bicep, shoulder, and leg conditioning."

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A: Can you explain offwidth in a way we can understand?

A: You are the roof of the cave? Literally across the ceiling?

Adventure: What was going through your mind at this moment?

A With Pete Whittaker on Free Climbing Century Crack

See more great images in our Extreme Photo of the Week.

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PW: We know it is the hardest offwidth because we have already completed all the other hardest offwidths in the world. This has also been a project for offwidth climbers for around 8 10 years and it was still never done.

A: How do you know this is the hardest offwidth completed?

A: What happens if you fall?

"You climb upside down with your legs inverted inside the crack above your head the whole way," says British rock climber Pete Whittaker about completing the first free climb of Century Crack, the longest and hardest known roof crack climb in the world, in October 2011. Here he is seen upside down 200 feet above the floor of the canyon near the White Rim in Canyonlands National Park, Utah.

A: Do you have no protection, is it considered free soloing?

PW: An offwidth is a crack in the rock that is wider than a person's fist (so they are unable to use secure fist jamming techniques) but narrower than a person to fit completely inside (so they are unable to use secure chimneying techniques). Therefore you have to try and fill the space using a combination of body parts together. You can then create stationary positions in able to move a separate body part up or across (in the case of this route). The is slow and complex and a few inches at a time on offwidths is considered to be good progress. Offwidth is generally hated by many people because of the strenuous and gruelling nature of the . Offwidth works the whole body and mainly the major limbs get massive amounts of lactic acid build up in them. It is not uncommon to hear about people throwing up or fainting straight after completing or whilst offwidths.

A: Did you climb some other stuff in the Southwest while you were here?

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Pete Whittaker: At this point of the route I am just approaching the crux. The climb becomes very technical as you go from being upside down in the horizontal plane to getting the correct way up in the vertical plane. A lot of different techniques have to be used at this point. So I was just trying to picture the sequence of moves that I had to execute, whilst I was still and approaching them. I knew if I could get past the next 10ft of then I would be able to complete the route.

PW: The on this route was so difficult that we did not free solo it. Most climbs of this type are never really soloed. It is common for this type of to use protection called Cams. These are devices that go into the rock and cam against either side of the crack. You then clip your rope through them and if you fall the camming device catches you. This route was very unique in that it needed 13cams of very similar size to protect it. It is unusual for a route to have so many of the same large camming devices.

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Hardy's influence, and especially all those characters taken down by social strictures and the destiny embedded in their personality, is apparent in Lahiri's new novel, The Lowland.Brothers Subhash and Udayan look alike and are close in childhood, often playing in the swampland near their parents' modest Kolkata home, the lowland of the title.Yet they are opposites. Subhash, 15 months older than his brother, is the cautious one who hangs on to his mother's sari. Not so Udayan, who sneaks onto the exclusive golf course nearby and otherwise runs a little wild.By the time they reach manhood in the mid 1960s, Subhash goes off to study chemical engineering while Udayan opts for physics. But their personalities diverge further.When they learn about a government raid on Mao inspired revolutionaries in a destitute village called Naxalbari, Udayan reacts "as if it were personal affront, a physical blow," Lahiri writes. He ends up joining the revolutionary Naxalite movement.Eventually, Subhash travels to Rhode Island to study marine chemistry. Udayan, meanwhile, gets a job teaching, Canada Goose Discount Foxe Bomber Australia falls in love with the philosophy student Gauri and marries.It's impossible to review the book without including this spoiler: early in the narrative, Udayan is killed by police. Then Subhash decides to honour his dead brother's memory by marrying Gauri, who is pregnant.Gauri, too, ends up in America, where her daughter, Bela, is born.Gauri is incapable of loving her new husband or even her child, a vital link to the man she lost. "There was a growing numbness that inhibited her, that impaired her," Lahiri writes.Numbness becomes the prevailing mood of the novel's second half. Gauri, who seems to suffer from post traumatic stress disorder, abandons Bela and Subhash for a life of detachment in California.Subhash devotes himself to Bela but otherwise lives in solitude, too. Sure enough, Bela spends her early adult years avoiding commitment, leading an itinerant life as a kind of guerrilla gardener. All of this makes for a long slog through the valley of loneliness.Darkly hued fiction is commonplace in contemporary writing, but The Lowlands is sombre in a distinctly old fashioned way; it's not late stage capitalism and/or environmental collapse that generate the misery in the novel, but rather that quaint concept of fate, or at least character as fate.This is why contemporary readers might balk at this story, its position on the shortlist for the 2013 Man Booker Prize notwithstanding. These lives seem rigged.Still, there are elements to savour. It's fascinating to read about the Naxalites and realize how much India, too, was contorted by social unrest in the 1960s.

A tale of two men

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I particularly interested in as to whether there is a shift taking place in country values towards more progressive agendas.

Indeed, on Election Day in 2010, the biggest name at the Merrijig Primary School's polling booth was the local prized Hereford, Johnnie the Bull.

cathy mcgowan, federal election, indi, sophie mirabella

Posted under: Blogging, Social media

It's important to note that Mirabella scored 49.75 per cent of the primary vote on her own, suggesting a large amount of conservatism and perhaps status quo still exists in the region. And why wouldn't it? Not too many people I met along the way were ever interested in political analysis. They were more interested in getting the job done.

Dated: Oct 04 2013

At the very least, I think it a wake up call to politicians to remain engaged with the electorate, or run the risk of being booted out at the next Federal election.

A newly energised federal voice

The dust has settled from the battle for the rural seat of Indi and after a protracted vote count how has the electorate changed, and has Cathy McGowan's Voice4Indi campaign successfully mobilized the locals into engaging in federal politics?While social media users enjoyed hating on incumbent Sophie Mirabella and rehashing her famous appearance on Q and A (video) One time Indi resident Corinne Grant summed up the mentality of Indi people quite nicely:"Not only is Indi conservative it's also traditional Indi people believe in loyalty."

Perhaps McGowan's low profile on social media and in the press suggests she is adopting the same philosophy.

A lack of strong alternatives was also a factor. In my five years living at Mt Buller, a major Victorian tourist destination, I never saw any of the major party Women Canada Goose Chilliwack Bomber Red Australia Sale candidates visit the region.

The tide did change, and certainly the use of social media in McGowan's campaign hipsters or not helped alleviate the challenges of campaigning in such a vast electorate. More than two thirds said 'yes'.

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now starting to abate, has meant that the only culture which does

founded us. But the boiling rage of the cultural adolescents, only

the media version of teenagers blowing raspberries at theirQuite right! It is Lord Crouchback, hoteliers of Sydney, not Mister Crouchback! Jolly well remember that when I pop down for the Ashes next year you impudent swine! Here is an ever better excerpt:

Yours, etcQuite right your Cheap Women Canada Goose Chilliwack Bomber Berry Australia lordship. The Australians, as a whole, should be thoroughly grateful for the fartherly guidance shown to them by their former school master which in this case is the one who canes the most, Great Britain.

So yes, your comeuppance was long overdue, and how satisfying that your nemesis should be turn out to be a staunch, loyal monarchist! I have been researching this fellow Abbott and he sounds like just the sort of fellow we need down in the colonies. Here is an excerpt:

Well, Mr Turnbull, you will find no sympathy in this quarter. Indeed, I have long considered you to be a very rum chap. I have not forgotten the danger you posed to the security of the Realm with your self aggrandising court room shenanigans in the Spycatcher case. If I had had my way and I was active at Court at that time and very nearly did have my way your head would have rolled down Pall Mall faster than one can shout "traitor!"

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For at least two decades, Britain has been one of the battlegrounds

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not attract exaggerated respect is the one which most shaped us.

which Australians are allowed no sense of affinity is the one which

most important relationships tend to carry the most freight. As one

For peoples, as for individuals, the oldest and

wag commented, "no good turn goes unpunished". Even so, it is odd

that, in multicultural Australia, the one cultural attachment no

a generation ago. It is even more strange that the one country for